You can store a key file on a USB - this is straightforward and well
documented. the same for using a YubiKey or similar.
Using a fingerprint scanner is not straightforward, and not well
But it reads as if you want to use all three together for disk
encryption, and I don’t think this is possible, because LUKS uses a single
What you could do is cascade the devices:
Unlock the machine with your fingerprint.
Password protect the USB device, where the keyfile is stored.
Load the keyfile.
This is quite straightforward, depending on what hardware you have. If
you need help, explain what you have done and where you are stuck.
When working with LUKS there are a number of keyslots you can use. Use
a new slot when you are changing configuration. That way you can
always fall back to original password. Once you are happy, delete the
old key slot.