As far as I can tell, I don’t believe “Docker for Windows” will work on an HVM Windows qube without workarounds.
- Docker on Windows uses virtualization/Hyper-V.
- Qubes OS does not support nested virtualization.
You mention .NET containers - the last I remember .NET was cross-platform and could run on Linux platforms. This would remove the need for Windows altogether unless you are specifically attempting to run Windows-platform containers or require Windows for your IDE.
There is no problem running (linux) Docker containers in a PVH Fedora/Debian qube on Qubes OS, as this is all handled by the linux kernel with namespaces/cgroups. Docker on Windows (and macOS) requires virtualization support because it’s essentially booting a linux VM and doing operations within that VM.
If you don’t really need Windows, installing on Docker in Qubes OS is as simple as:
Clone one of your templates (eg debian-10) into a standalone qube, call it debian-docker
You can use Qubes Manager (create qube, option: standalone cloned from template), or:
qvm-clone --class StandaloneVM debian-10 debian-docker
Boot the debian-docker qube, install Docker and any necessary dependencies
You now have Docker on Qubes OS and can do all your Docker things within that qube.
Alternative: clone template (but leave it as a template, not a standalone), install Docker. Then create AppVMs and make the various storage directories for Docker a bind-dir such that they are stored persistently with the AppVM. Now you can create AppVM qubes from debian-docker and essentially “start fresh” without contaminating different projects.
From a quick search, here’s a gist of someone doing this on R3.2 - https://gist.github.com/xahare/6b47526354a92f290aecd17e12108353
The above assumes you have no explicit need for Windows.