Can my ISP see which proxy server I am connected to at the end of the chain?

I guess I have a newbie question.
Tell me please, if I’m using a chain: SOCKS5 proxy in browser → sys-whonix → sys-vpn → sys-firewall → sys-net Can my ISP see which proxy server I am connected to at the end of the chain? Or does he only see the first connection? Thank you

Only the first connection can be shown. Means your ISP see, you’re directly connected to an IP, which can be tracked back to a VPN ISP and they will know which VPN service/ISP you’re using “by name”

offtopic: I don’t use it when chained to sys-whonix, but is SOCKS5 actually needed at all with sys-whonix as netVm?

Let’s say if you are connecting to a vpn for the first time. The ISP will see what is going with your traffic and where it is going to. After you are connected to your VPN, Your ISP won’t “track” your traffic because it is ‘encrypted’ by your vpn. This way you will have a full privacy circle for your daily browsing thing.

In something like the following:

Browser -> VPN2 -> VPN1 -> Net

…your ISP can see encrypted traffic is flowing through the VPN1 IP address (but they can’t read it) and the websites you visit will see your IP as the VPN2 address but they wont know about VPN1. If you use a single VPN service, it will know your whole game… so it’s likely best to use multiple proxy providers.

In your mixed Tor example, (my understanding is) the website will see you connected via socks5 and the ISP will see encrypted traffic flowing through your sys-vpn IP. The Tor traffic will be “hidden” from your ISP and the website, but your sys-vpn provider will know “you” are using Tor - so if you paid for the service with a credit card, your Tor anonymity is lost to your VPN provider.

Cobbling together network connections like this isn’t necessarily more anonymous. ISPs have other ways to know if you are using Tor and if you are using Firefox to connect to the socks5 proxy VM, you won’t have the additional hardening of Tor Browser when connecting through Tor… so there are tradeoffs.

I wouldn’t. Your VPN is just another ISP. If I can put my tinfoil hat on for a minute–if I were the head of the NSA, RSA, or any other national cyber-espionage service–I would make my own VPN service and call it the “super secure they’ll never know service”. Then, not only will I have the IP addresses of my vict-- uh, I mean customers–but I’ll also have their credit card numbers and every site they try to anonimize via my service! Boom! Instant surveillance of everybody who’s afraid of getting tracked!