Can I change encryption passphrase and user password

It is possiple to change my encryption passphrase and user password after installing qubes

Yes, for changing the passphrase, open dom0 terminal and insert:
sudo cryptsetup luksChangeKey /dev/name_of_your_disk

To find out, what’s the name of your disk, try lsblk before. Then you get an overview for all drives, you have.
Spoken from what I have - I have a 1TB SSD disk nvme0n1 ← this disk is parted in three partitions (boot / swap and the luks encrypted system partition) nvme0n1p1 / p2 / p3, so it should be very similar on your side and your third partition probably is the encrypted one.
Your command should be somethings like: sudo cryptsetup luksChangeKey /dev/nvme0n1p3

These luks keys can also be added and removed from the list. Means you also (beside of the change command) can use lists with more of one luks key.
add command = sudo cryptsetup luksAddKey /dev/name_of_your_disk
remove command = sudo cryptsetup luksRemoveKey /dev/name_of_your_disk

You can change your user password in dom0 terminal also, with:
sudo passwd


User password or root password (sudo)?

@gg11331 the sudo cryptsetup luksDump /dev/name_of_your_disk command shows the used keyslots (passphrases). As @TheGardner said, add a new key, reboot, check it works, then only after remove the old key.

The help is man cryptsetup.

sudo passwd <username> or passwd.

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